Curriculum - Subject Descriptions
Freshmore Subjects (Terms 1 to 3)

 10.001: Advanced Math I At the end of the term, students will be able to: Compute derivatives using the rules of calculus. Apply those calculations to find maxima and minima and accurate approximations in problems coming from engineering. Produce exact integrals by algebra and find approximate integrals numerically. Use integral calculus to solve for the important quantities in engineering design of continuous systems. Solve basic differential equations of growth and oscillation. The subject will cover the following topics: Calculus for functions of one variable. Derivatives of the key functions of mathematics; e^x and solution of dy/dx=y; product rule, quotient rule, chain rule; inverse functions and logarithms; maximum-minimum problems; linear approximation and Newton's method; complex numbers and series; integration and Fundamental Theorem of Calculus; applications including area and probability and y' '= - y and basic differential equations.

 10.002: Physics I An introduction to Newtonian Mechanics. At the end of the term, students will be able to: Understand kinematics and the use of vector analysis; Newton’s law of motion; energy conservation; momentum conservation; two-dimensional rotational motion and angular momentum conservation; kinetic theory and how it relates to the ideal gas model. Topics will include: One dimensional Motion: kinematics with non-constant acceleration; Two Dimensional Motion: vector analysis, motion in a plane, relative inertial frames; Newton’s Laws of Motion: forces, linear motion, circular motion. Energy: work-energy theorem, potential energy, conservation of energy, and vibrational motion (simple harmonic oscillator); Systems of Particles: particle dynamics, momentum, centre of mass, impulse, and conservation of momentum, continuous mass transfer, kinetic theory and the ideal gas; Two Dimensional Rotational Motion: rigid bodies, moment of inertia, rotational energy, torque, angular momentum, rotational statics and dynamics, conservation of angular momentum; Central force Motions; Fluid Mechanics.

 10.003: Chemistry: From Atoms to Crystals An introduction to chemistry with an emphasis on basic principles of atomic and molecular electronic structures, thermodynamics, acid-base and redox equilibria, chemical kinetics, and catalysis. The relationship between electronic structure, chemical bonding, and crystal structure is developed. This subject is also designed to introduce the student to underlying principles of biological, organic and transition metal chemistry. At the end of the term, students will be able to: understand quantum theory of the atom, how that influences chemical bonding, and leads to the relationships expressed in the periodic table; covalent, polar covalent and ionic bonds and how they lead to different structures and physical properties in organic materials and gases; use thermodynamic properties (enthalpy, entropy, and Gibb’s free energy) to calculate chemical equilibrium concentrations and yields of chemical reactions; understand how an electrochemical cell works; radioactive decay and be able to calculate rates of radioactive decay; transition metal complexes and their role in biology.

 02.001: World Civilisations and Texts I This two-term subject introduces students to the rich diversity of human culture from antiquity to the present. Although we will explore this variation in its myriad expressions-in art, literature, religious and philosophical thought, social customs, everyday artefacts, and scientific advances-our primary focus will be the study of literary and philosophical texts as ways of narrating, symbolising, and commenting on all aspects of human social and material life. The first term will concentrate on ancient and medieval traditions; the second on modern and contemporary times.

 10.004: Advanced Math II At the end of the term, students will be able to: Express linear models in vector - matrix form. Solve linear systems by elimination and by inverse matrices. Compute partial derivatives and linear approximations to functions f(x,y). Find minima of functions of n variables coming from least squares. Connect functions, gradients, and level curves. Calculate multiple integrals for volume. Use Green's Theorem and the Divergence Theorem to compute flux of vector fields. Compare div, grad, curl and make the connections between them. Topics will include: Vectors, matrices, determinants, linear systems; projection when Ax = b is overdetermined; curves in space; functions of several variables and partial derivatives; min-max problems and second derivatives; least squares; gradients and level curves; conservative vector fields; double integrals and Green's Theorem; triple integrals and the Divergence Theorem.

 10.005: Physics II An introduction to Electromagnetism. Electrostatics: electric charge, Coulomb’s law, electrostatic field, Gauss’ Law, electric potential difference, electrostatic energy; Electric structure of matter: conductors, capacitors, and dielectrics. Electric Current: current, resistance, Ohm’s Law, and DC circuit theory with capacitors; Magnetostatics: magnetic field, Lorentz Force Law, Biot-Savart Law, and Ampere’s law; Magnetic properties of materials; Time-varying fields: electromotive force, Faraday’s law of induction, inductors, energy stored in magnetic field; Maxwell’s equations: displacement current, Poynting vector, and conservation of energy; Electromagnetic Waves: plane, standing and travelling conditions. At the end of the term, students will be able to: apply Coulomb’s and Gauss’ law in simple geometries; apply, in simple circuits, Kirchoff’s and Ohm’s law; explain the generation of magnetic fields from currents using Ampere’s law and the Biot-Savart law; explain the concept of inductance; be familiar with Maxwell’s equations; calculate the Poynting vector and be able to explain how it relates to the flow of electromagnetic energy; Snell’s law, polarisation, interference and diffraction of light.

 03.007: Introduction to Design Introduces students to concepts of design at a variety of scales and through both engineering and architectural design disciplines. The student will be exposed to core technology and design themes including principles, modes of thinking and analysis, and social and cultural aspects of design. The subject also introduces students to essential skills of good design including teamwork and workflow organisation, team building and leadership, written and oral communication, graphic and analytical representation and a variety of computational techniques. Student teams formulate and complete design projects, setting and achieving milestones under a team of instructors composed of both engineers and architects; projects will be defined in connection with applications in transportation, the built environment, energy, infrastructure and others. [ website ]

 02.002: World Civilisations and Texts II This two-term subject introduces students to the rich diversity of human culture from antiquity to the present. Although we will explore this variation in its myriad expressions—in art, literature, religious and philosophical thought, social customs, everyday artefacts, and scientific advances—our primary focus will be the study of literary and philosophical texts as ways of narrating, symbolising, and commenting on all aspects of human social and material life. The first term will concentrate on ancient and medieval traditions; the second on modern and contemporary times.

 10.007: Modelling the Systems World At the end of the term, students will be able to: Compute and use the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix. Model a mechanical system by Mu'' + Ku = step fcn/delta fcn and solve using normal modes and using transform methods. Linearise near steady states of ODEs. Find bases for the four fundamental subspaces and apply to Ax=b. Analyse a network by Kirchhoff's Laws and derive the conductance matrix. Model a Gaussian random process using its covariance matrix. Topics will include: Eigenvalues and eigenvectors for systems y' = Ay; diagonalisation; linearisation; positive definite matrices in Mu'' + Ku = 0; physical models of oscillation; Fourier series and the FFT; step and delta functions; basic PDE's; vector spaces and subspaces; networks, incidence matrices, and Kirchhoff's Laws; graph-based analysis.

 10.008: Engineering in the Physical World This subject provides students with the necessary framework to understand, model, and ultimately engineer the "physical world". Behaviour at different scales ---micro, macro, lumped --- in engineering applications. Molecular origin of thermal and mechanical phenomena; brief discussion of chemical and electrical domains. Statistical mechanics to thermodynamics and macroscopic behaviour; conservations laws for energy, mass, momentum; origin and limits of macroscopic constitutive relations. Physical systems: lumped approximations; equilibrium networks; elementary dynamics. Applications to energy and materials. At the end of the term, students will be able to: Understand the molecular origin of thermal and mechanical (also electrical and chemical) phenomena. Understand thermodynamics, kinetic theory, and "lumped" approaches to multiscale analysis. Understand the origin and implications of fundamental macroscale constitutive relations. Understand canonical collective/distributed behaviour at the macroscale (e.g., diffusion). Understand the basic lumped elements of physical networks/systems, and analogies across physical disciplines. Understand the importance of thermal, mechanical, and chemical phenomena in energy and materials devices and systems.

 10.009: The Digital World An introduction to computer programming and numerical methods. We assume no prior background in programming and we begin with the basics of representation and computation on data stored in arrays; we emphasise abstraction and apply methods of object-oriented programming for clarity and reusability of software. We consider numerical methods for interpolation and integration (deterministic and Monte-Carlo approaches), linear systems and eigen problems, least-squares and regression, ordinary differential equations, nonlinear equations, linear optimisation, and unconstrained nonlinear optimisation; we emphasise stability, accuracy, efficiency, and verification. Examples to be drawn from the four pillars of SUTD society. At the end of the term, students will be able to: Apply the elements of a programme: data, instructions, procedures, objects; abstract data types: collections of data and associated operations; object-oriented programming concepts; floating point representation and operations; Python syntax and environment; the basic "canon" of numerical approximation and solution methods: to what problems does a method apply? how does the method work? is the method efficient? Can sparsity be exploited? what are the limitations and pro's/con's? what can go wrong (e.g., instability)? what are the sources of error and uncertainty?; SciPy numerical capabilities.

 10.010: Introduction to Biology This introductory biology subject is to provide students with a strong foundation in basic biology, incorporating fundamental principles from the fields of biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, cellular biology, physiology, and ecology. With a good foundation established, the students will explore current topics in human biology, developmental biology, genomics, physiology, evolution, systems biology and eco-systems interactions, through innovative learning strategies like experiential learning and problem-based learning pedagogical approaches. At the end of the term, students will be able to: Apply the fundamental principles learnt to understand the functions, processes & regulation of cells, multi-cellular systems, whole-organism and at the eco-system level; use laboratory techniques & standard methods of data analysis commonly used in biological research; design simple experiments, & also to collect & interpret simple biological experimental data; gain a basic understanding & appreciation of the complexity associated with biological systems & knowing how to approach research issues with a biological dimension.

ELECTIVES

Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences (HASS) Subjects

 02.003: Ethics of Leadership All ethics deals with due regard for the interest of others; the ethics of leadership deals as well with responsibilities incurred by using others for purposes beyond the scope of their intentions. The subject is a study of the main tradition of ethical theories, from so-called "value" ethics in the ancient world to modern utilitarianism and theory of human rights, approached from the standpoint of questions of leadership.

 02.004: Physics in the 20th Century This subject explores the changing roles of physics and physicists during the 20th century. Topics range from relativity theory and quantum mechanics to high-energy physics and cosmology. Materials in the class examine the development of modern physics within shifting institutional, cultural, and political contexts, such as physics in Imperial Britain, Nazi Germany, US efforts during World War II, and physicists' roles during the cold war.

 02.005: Darwin and Design A broad survey of the sources and implications of the ideas animating Darwin's revolutionary On the Origin of Species. Examination of Natural Selection as a model for understanding how objects and systems can evince complex design without implying the existence of a designer and how selection can drive evolutionary change without intelligent agency. The subject traces the import for ethical theory, the history of technology, the study of feedback control in the action of mechanisms and in the workings of social institutions.

 02.006: Microeconomics Microeconomics is an introductory undergraduate subject that teaches the fundamentals of microeconomics. Topics include consumer theory, production and the behaviour of firms, market equilibrium, monopoly and the role of the government in the economy.

 02.007: Organisational Processes This subject will build an understanding of how organisations behave and change, and enhance capacity to act effectively in organisations. We will discuss how the best organisation depends on strategy, industry, market, history, culture, people and technology. We will also show how the ability to act with skill and creativity in an organisation depends on handling multiple perspectives on organisations, and trading off the cost of a structure with the flexibility it might offer.

 02.008: The World Since 1400 This subject surveys the social, economic, and political evolution of societies and cultures from about the year 1400 to the present. The subject’s primary theme is the increasing interaction between communities as the barrier of distance succumbed to both curiosity and new transport technologies. It will also explore the unexpected rise to world dominance of Western Europe and the United States over the past 500 years, the "great divergence" in material, political, and technological development that occurred between Western Europe and East Asia after 1750, and the resulting impact on the rest of the world. It attempts to present this history in an integrative fashion. It will examine processes, trends, and environmental factors at the trans-regional or global level, rather than presenting a series of histories of different regions in sequence. It seeks to accomplish this by emphasising human encounters as well as material, cultural, and biological exchanges between different regions, cultures, and civilisations. In the process, we will examine a series of evolving relationships, those between human beings and their physical environment, between different religious and political systems, between different ethnic groups, and between men and women. The comparative study of these relationships will play a crucial role in illustrating the major patterns in history. In addition to improving critical reading and writing skills, this subject will also serve as an introduction to historical and other interpretive methodologies: in each class, students will be expected to analyse and interpret both primary and secondary source materials.

 02.009: Technology and the Self Focuses on the memoir as a window onto the relationship of the scientist, engineer, and technologist to his or her work. Studies the subjective side of technology and the social and psychological dimensions of technological change. Students write about specific objects and their role in their lives - memoir fragments - as a means of exploring theories of how scientific careers are born. How do a range of theories of child development help us understand the development of creativity in science and technology? How do scientific memoirs differ from those written by members of other fields? What is the range of memoir genres in science? Explores the connection between material culture, identity, cognitive and emotional development.

 02.010: Entrepreneurship Seminar A series of seminars exploring the different aspects of entrepreneurship including idea formation, team formation, business plan creation, raising capital, bootstrapping, operating, IP, financial considerations, sales, product management, growth and exits. The subject will give students to different perspectives and different stories in successful and *unsuccessful* entrepreneurship exercises.

 02.011: Social Responsibility This subject covers personal and corporate social responsibility. Personal social responsibility covers personal ethics, assessing the implications of ones actions either as a private citizen or as a professional. Corporate social responsibility covers the use of a corporations profits and corporate philosophy, socially responsible procurement, outsourcing and offshoring, and principles of socially responsibility in manufacturing, supply chain, operations and recruitment. The subject will also cover social and regional implications of social responsibility ranging from fair-trade to protection of vulnerable minorities.

 02.012: Organisations and People This subject examines the historical evolution and current human and organisational contexts in which scientists, engineers and other professionals work. It outlines today's major challenges facing the management profession and uses interactive exercises, simulations and problems to develop critical skills in negotiations, teamwork and leadership. It also introduces concepts and tools to analyse work and leadership experiences in optional undergraduate fieldwork projects.

 02.013: Understanding the Interaction Between Human Behaviour, Technology and Design Human beings have limited cognitive abilities and limited will power. Because of this, individuals frequently make decisions that depart systematically from the 'norms'. This subject examines how technology and design change human behaviour and human behaviour redefining the status quo of technology and design. Human behaviour and dynamics and interactions in social network or cyber-systems can be good examples. Techniques for future prediction and forecasting from users' perspectives will be included in this subject.

 02.014: Design Management This subject integrates design into management and vice versa. It is an approach where organisations make design-relevant decisions in a market and customer-oriented way and optimising design-relevant corporate processes. It is a comprehensive activity on all levels of business performance that effect design, from the fuzzy front-end to the execution of design. Design management acts as the interface of management and design and functions as link between the platforms of technology, design, design thinking, corporate management and marketing management at internal and external interfaces of the enterprise. This subject also covers management of product design and may include engineering management and R&D management.

 02.015: Business Culture and Entrepreneurship in China This subject focuses on business culture, individual, team and firm-level entrepreneurship in China. As the subject explores the culture of business in China, its rules and entrepreneurship and institutional holes and double entrepreneurship will be explained. The subject will provide a deeper understanding of the country's institutional change and entrepreneurial strategies, its entrepreneurial process, the limits on playing institutional holes and the key players involved such as the entrepreneur, the bureaucrats, and the journalists. Entrepreneurial authority and institutional autonomy in China will also be studied as part of the subject.

 02.016: Role of Technology and Design on Growth of Modern China in the 21st Century Modern China’s achievements especially since the economic reforms and opening up of the country can be viewed as a brand-new economic and social development mode for the world. From the new process of industrialisation with Chinese characteristics, this subject will reveal the role of technology and design in the past, study it in its current context and explore future possibilities. The relationship of society, commodity, technology and design throughout China’s economic reforms and technology and design as an indispensable industry resource will be introduced. This subject will also emphasise and introduce the current situation of China’s design industry, the role of design organisations in the local economy, and the operation and management of design division.

 02.017: History of Chinese Urban Development and Planning The subject is based on the environmental concepts of ancient Chinese cities and settlements to reveal the ecological implications of building and development against the backdrop of ancient Chinese culture. The principles of Chinese architecture are rooted in the ideas and applications of Feng Shui and have largely remained unchanged over time compared to the architectural system in other cultures. There are two pertinent issues in the study of Feng Shui today: how historical buildings can co-exist within the modern city context and how the ancient architectural designs and traditions can complement modern architectural designs. The subject attempts to respond to these issues by studying the history of architecture and exploring specific designs of modern buildings.

 02.018: Culture Formation and Innovative Product Design Focusing on the origins and development of China’s traditional appliance design thinking, this subject will start with an introduction of the design characteristics of each dynasty which includes an appreciation for the embedding cultural phenomena and evolution. Furthermore, the subject will analyse the design methodology from a view of a full range of design archaeology such as design principles, structure design, materials techniques, visual design, design comparison and design culture. From this study, there will be a sharing of knowledge and proposal of innovative design ideas that will culminate in a modern industrial product design.

 02.019: Sustainability of Ancient Chinese Architectural Design in the Modern World There are four parts in this subject: Chinese ancient architectural design, Chinese-themed landscape planning and design, construction and use of materials and their sustainable use in today's context. Firstly, Chinese ancient architectural design introduces the rich design history behind different kinds of buildings such as palace, temple, house ranging from city, hillside, riverside and village amongst others. Secondly, Chinese-themed landscape planning and design focuses on the aesthetic theory of Chinese literature, paintings and poems and how they influence Chinese landscaping. Thirdly, construction and use of materials mainly introduces wood structure method and its techniques. Finally, sustainable development in today's context includes examples using different kinds of construct method such as wood structure, concrete structure, steel structure etc. to express the Chinese architectural development in modern context and in the various styles such as classical, postmodern, compact, or abstract.

Technical Application (TECH) Electives

 01.101: Global Health Technologies Global Health Technologies provides a multi-disciplinary approach to global health technology design using real world projects and partners. The subject explores the current state of global health challenges, and teaches students how to design medical technologies that address those problems. Students will use medical technology design kits to encourage an accelerated introduction to medical device design for developing countries.

 01.102: Energy Systems in the Developing World D-Lab: Energy offers a hands-on, project-based approach that engages students in understanding and addressing the applications of alternative energy technology in developing countries where compact, robust, low-cost systems for generating power are required. Projects may include micro-hydro, solar, or wind turbine generators along with theoretical analysis, design, prototype construction, evaluation, and implementation.

 01.103: Transportation Technology Introduction to the major technical challenges and considerations of the transportation industry. For upper level undergraduates interested in learning about the transportation field in a broad but quantitative manner. Topics include road vehicle engineering, internal combustion engines, batteries and motors, electric and hybrid powertrains, urban and high speed rail transportation, water vessels, aircraft types and aerodynamics, radar, navigation, GPS, GIS. Students will complete a project on a subject of their choosing.

 01.104: Operations Management This subject introduces concepts and techniques related to the design, planning, control, and improvement of both manufacturing and service operations. The subject provides basic definitions of operations management terms, tools and techniques for analysing operations, and strategic context for making operational decisions. In particular, some of the topics covered include: process description, flow diagrams, capacity analysis, capacity ROI, cycle time analysis, demand forecasting, inventory management, delayed postponement, production control, work coordination, risk pooling, quality management, process design and reengineering, product development, project management, procurement, make vs. buy and supply chain design.

 01.105: Design and Manufacturing This subject provides exposure to a range of current industrial processes and practices used to manufacture products in high and low volumes, with in-depth focus on several selected processes. It gives an integrated perspective of design, engineering, and management disciplines and practices for analysis and design of manufacturing enterprises. Emphasis is on the physics and stochastic nature of manufacturing processes and systems, and their effects on quality, rate, cost, and flexibility. Topics include process physics and control, design for manufacturing, and manufacturing systems. Group project requires design and fabrication of parts using mass-production and assembly methods to produce a product in quantity.

 01.106: Engineering Management Introduction and overview of engineering management. Financial principles, management of innovation, technology strategy, and best management practices. Cases are discussed in class for class participation. Focus is on the development of individual skills and team work, and exposure to management tools.

PILLAR-SPECIFIC SUBJECTS (TERMS 4 TO 8)

Information Systems Technology and Design (ISTD) Subjects

ISTD pillar undergraduate curriculum and subjects can be found at the ISTD website.

 01.400: Capstone 1 Students begin work on a substantial two-term project that integrates and demonstrates the knowledge and skills they have acquired in the context of a real-world problem. Problem specifications may be suggested but industrial collaborators, by faculty members, and/or by the students themselves.

 01.401: Capstone 2 Students finish work on a substantial two-term project that integrates and demonstrates the knowledge and skills they have acquired in the context of a real-world problem.

Engineering Product Development - Mechanical Devices (EPDM) Subjects

 01.001: Introduction to Probability & Statistics This is an introduction to statistics and probability covering essential topics such as sample space, discrete and continuous random variables, probability distributions, joint and conditional distributions, expectation, transformation of random variables, limit theorems, estimation theory, hypothesis testing, confidence interval, statistical tests, and regression.

 01.002: Signals & Systems Dynamics of first- and second- order, linear and time invariant, electronic and mechanical systems. Lumped parameter analysis. Signals and systems, including linear and time invariant systems, convolution, Fourier analysis and transforms, Laplace transforms. Design in the time and in the frequency domain.

 31.001: Structures & Materials This is an introductory subject to statics and the mechanics of deformable solids. Emphasis on the three basic principles of equilibrium, geometric compatibility, and material behaviour. Stress and its relation to force and moment; strain and its relation to displacement; linear elasticity. Failure modes. Application to simple engineering structures such as rods, shafts, beams, and trusses and to biomechanics of natural materials and structures. Introduction to mechanical behaviour of engineering materials, and the use of materials in mechanical design.

 31.002: Fluid Mechanics Properties of fluids. Hydrostatics. Equations of motion (conservation of mass, momentum, energy). Control volume analysis and examples for fluid devices. Potential flow, its analysis, and application of Bernoulli’s theorem. Viscous flows and laminar and turbulent boundary layers, skin friction, losses in ducts and other fluid components. Dimensional analysis and the role of the Reynolds number.

 31.003: Engineering Design and Project Engineering Module 1: Develop a holistic view of, and initial competency in, engineering design by conceiving, designing, manufacturing and testing a system component such as a complex structural part. Activities include hand sketching, CAD modelling, CAE analysis, CAM programming and operation of CNC machining equipment. Requirements compliance is verified in the laboratory via structural testing. Initial designs are improved by means of multiobjective design optimisation. The focus is on the design process as well as the complementary roles of human creativity and computational methods and tools. Designs are executed by pairs of students who enter their products in a design competition. The pedagogy is based on active learning and a balance of lectures and hands-on activities. Module 2: Project-based seminar to develop skills to effectively conceive, evaluate, plan, organise, lead, and implement engineering design projects. Includes techniques to sharpen creative thinking and critical analysis of designs, as well as utilise iterative processes. Students innovate, implement, and communicate designs that are practical, successful, elegant, interactive, robust, and holistic. Focus on project scope, and balancing real-world constraints against the limitations of technology and human cognition.

 01.003: Feedback Control Subject uses design problems as context for examining techniques for design and analysis of continuous- and discrete-time feedback control systems, e.g., controlling motor position with electronic and computer feedback to demonstrate the basics of using Laplace- and Z-transform techniques for analysing the stability, settling time, insensitivity to parametric variation, and disturbance rejection properties of basic PID controllers. Introduction to the use of transfer functions. Addresses problems such as steering a moving robot given only position measures to demonstrate the state-space observer approach to control system design. Use of frequency domain measurements (for example in examining the effect of addition of a long compliant blade to the motor position control problem) to extract low-order models of a complicated system and to utilise pole placement techniques to achieve desired control system performance.

 31.004: Dynamics Introduction to the dynamics and vibrations of lumped-parameter models of mechanical systems. Kinematics. Force-momentum formulation for systems of particles and rigid bodies in planar motion. Work-energy concepts. Virtual displacements and virtual work. Lagrange´s equations for systems of particles and rigid bodies in planar motion. Linearisation of equations of motion. Linear stability analysis of mechanical systems. Free and forced vibration of linear multi-degree of freedom models of mechanical systems.

 31.005: Thermal Systems for Power & Environment Thermodynamic state of a system, work, heat and various forms of energy, the First Law of thermodynamics, heat engines, reversible and irreversible processes, entropy, and the Second Law of thermodynamics. Energy exchange in power and environmental control processes. Quantification of irreversibility and connection to lost work; application of the first and second laws to engineering systems (gas and vapour power cycles, refrigeration and environmental control, reacting flows); rates of energy transfer and heat exchange in mechanical devices.

 01.400: Capstone 1 Students develop an understanding of engineering product development process and experience through working in teams to design and construct product prototypes. In this experience the design process is placed into a broader development context. Aspects addressed include the engineering reasoning, assessment of design alternatives, modelling techniques for different development phases, transforming customer information into engineering specifications, oral and written communication, and teamwork as a necessary part of resolving the challenges in designing and building a substantive product prototype.

 01.401: Capstone 2 Students develop an understanding of engineering product development process and experience through working in teams to design and construct product prototypes. In this experience the design process is placed into a broader development context. Aspects addressed include the engineering reasoning, assessment of design alternatives, modelling techniques for different development phases, transforming customer information into engineering specifications, oral and written communication, and teamwork as a necessary part of resolving the challenges in designing and building a substantive product prototype.

Engineering Product Development - Electronic Devices (EPDE) Subjects

 01.001: Introduction to Probability & Statistics This is an introductory subject to statistics and probability covering essential topics. Sample space, discrete and continuous random variables, probability distributions, joint and conditional distributions, expectation, transformation of random variables, limit theorems, estimation theory, hypothesis testing, confidence interval, statistical tests, and regression.

 01.002: Signals & Systems Dynamics of first- and second- order, linear and time invariant, electronic and mechanical systems. Lumped parameter analysis. Signals and systems, including linear and time invariant systems, convolution, Fourier analysis and transforms, Laplace transforms. Design in the time and in the frequency domain.

 30.001: Circuits & Electronics This subject introduces the fundamentals of the lumped circuit abstraction. Topics include: resistive elements and networks; independent and dependent sources; switches and MOS transistors; digital abstraction; amplifiers; energy storage elements; dynamics of first- and second-order networks; design in the time and frequency domains; and analogue and digital circuits and applications. Design and lab exercises are significant components of the subject.

 30.002: Product Engineering & Design This is a project-based seminar to develop skills to effectively conceive, evaluate, plan, organise, lead, and implement engineering design projects. Includes techniques to sharpen creative thinking and critical analysis of designs, as well as utilise iterative processes. Students innovate, implement, and communicate designs that are practical, successful, elegant, interactive, robust, and holistic. Focus on project scope, and balancing real-world constraints against the limitations of technology and human cognition.

 30.003: Electromagnetics & Applications Electromagnetic phenomena in modern applications, including antenna design for wireless communication, extracting circuit models of electronic interconnect, and analysing forces and fields in micro machined resonators. Fundamentals include quasi-static and dynamic solutions to Maxwell's equations; waves, radiation, and circuit model extraction.

 01.003: Feedback Control Subject uses design problems as context for examining techniques for design and analysis of continuous- and discrete-time feedback control systems, e.g., controlling motor position with electronic and computer feedback to demonstrate the basics of using Laplace- and Z-transform techniques for analysing the stability, settling time, insensitivity to parametric variation, and disturbance rejection properties of basic PID controllers. Introduction to the use of transfer functions. Addresses problems such as steering a moving robot given only position measures to demonstrate the state-space observer approach to control system design. Use of frequency domain measurements (for example in examining the effect of addition of a long compliant blade to the motor position control problem) to extract low-order models of a complicated system and to utilise pole placement techniques to achieve desired control system performance.

 30.004: Digital Systems Laboratory Lectures and labs on digital logic, flip flops, PALs, FPGAs, counters, timing, synchronisation, and finite-state machines prepare students for the design and implementation of a final project of their choice: games, music, digital filters, wireless communications, video, or graphics. Extensive use of Verilog to describe and implement digital system designs. Students engage in extensive written and oral communication exercises.

 30.005: Microelectronic Circuits & Devices Topics include: modelling of microelectronic devices, basic microelectronic circuit analysis and design, physical electronics of semiconductor junction and MOS devices, relation of electrical behaviour to internal physical processes, development of circuit models, and understanding the uses and limitations of various models. Use of incremental and large-signal techniques to analyse and design bipolar and field effect transistor circuits, with examples chosen from digital circuits, single-ended and differential linear amplifiers, and other integrated circuits.

 30.006: Design & Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Systems Introduction to microsystem design covering material properties, microfabrication technologies, structural behaviour, sensing methods, electromechanical actuation, thermal actuation and control, multi-domain modelling, noise, and microsystem packaging. Application of microsystem modelling, and manufacturing principles to the design and analysis of a variety of microscale sensors and actuators (e.g., optical MEMS, bioMEMS, and inertial sensors). Emphasises modelling and simulation in the design process.

 01.400: Capstone 1 Students develop an understanding of engineering product development process and experience through working in teams to design and construct product prototypes. In this experience the design process is placed into a broader development context. Aspects addressed include the engineering reasoning, assessment of design alternatives, modelling techniques for different development phases, transforming customer information into engineering specifications, oral and written communication, and teamwork as a necessary part of resolving the challenges in designing and building a substantive product prototype.

 01.401: Capstone 2 Students develop an understanding of engineering product development process and experience through working in teams to design and construct product prototypes. In this experience the design process is placed into a broader development context. Aspects addressed include the engineering reasoning, assessment of design alternatives, modelling techniques for different development phases, transforming customer information into engineering specifications, oral and written communication, and teamwork as a necessary part of resolving the challenges in designing and building a substantive product prototype.

Engineering Systems and Design (ESD) Subjects

 40.001: Introduction to Engineering Systems Engineering and engineered systems entail large, complex systems whose performance and function depend both on their technology and on the socio-economic context within which they operate. Examples include transportation, telecommunication, power, manufacturing, health care, financial services and other information-intensive service systems such as retailing. In this class students will be introduced to various engineering systems and the challenges associated with their design, planning and control. This will include addressing questions: what are the objectives of the engineering system? Who are the customers and stakeholders, and what are the key performance criteria? What are the key trade-offs in the design of an engineering system? What are the critical considerations and constraints? What are the uncertainties and risks? How do we account for the relevant socio-economic context in which the system functions?

 40.002: Applied Probability for Engineering Systems This class provides an introduction to probability, with emphasis on modelling as might be applied to engineering systems. Topics include sample spaces, events and axioms of probability; conditional probability and Bayes’ theorem; discrete and continuous random variables, probability mass functions and densities, expectations; transform methods and applications; Bernoulli and Poisson processes and their applications; Markov chains; Central Limit Theorem and Laws of Large Numbers.

 40.003: Optimisation This class provides an introduction to the theory, algorithms, and applications of optimisation. Optimisation methodologies include linear programming, network optimisation, integer programming, nonlinear optimisation, decision trees, and dynamic programming. The methods have applications to the design, planning and control of engineering systems, e.g., manufacturing, transportation, supply chains, telecommunication and power systems.

 40.004: Applied Statistics This class provides an introduction to applied statistics and data analysis. Topics include collecting and exploring data, basic inference, estimation and hypothesis testing, goodness-of-fit tests, simple and multiple linear regression, analysis of variance, nonparametric methods, statistical computing, design of experiments. As possible, applications and examples will be based on data bases from engineering systems.

 40.005: Discrete Event Simulation This class provides an introduction to discrete event simulation for the modelling of engineering and engineered systems. Students learn basic concepts of simulation modelling analysis and will learn about software packages for aiding in this. Topics include generation of random numbers and random variates, analysis of input data and output data, variance reduction techniques, verification and validation of simulation models, experimental design and the application of simulation for system evolution and design. Of particular importance is learning the art of modelling, especially in terms of level of modelling detail and what to include or exclude from a model. Students will have project opportunities to build a simulation model to analyse the current behaviour of a real world system.

 40.006: Network Modelling of Complex Systems Network models are pervasive in the design, planning and operation of engineering systems. The class will show how network models, analyses and algorithms are applied to various types of engineering systems. Topics include the optimisation of network design, network capacity evaluation, flow optimisation, traffic equilibrium, and network reliability. The class will also introduce students to basics of network analysis, including visualisation, network metrics and network laws and their implications.

 40.007: Systems Architecture This subject covers principles and methods for System Architecture, namely the structure, arrangements or configuration of system elements and their internal relationships necessary to satisfy customer requirements and technical constraints. The class provides a synthetic view including: the resolution of ambiguity to identify system goals and boundaries; the creative process of mapping form to function; and the analysis of complexity and methods of decomposition and re-integration. Heuristic and formal methods are presented. Engineering system examples are used to illustrate the concepts.

 01.400: Capstone 1 Students finish work on a substantial two-term project that integrates and demonstrates the knowledge and skills they have acquired in the context of a real-world problem.

 40.008: Flexibility in Engineering Design This subject covers theory and methods to identify, value, and implement flexibility in design, with the objective of maximising expected value. The subject involves two major blocks covering first the reactive ways of dealing with risk and uncertainty, and then the proactive, anticipatory methods to increase value by designing systems to minimise the downside and maximise the upside. The first block covers the recognition of uncertainties, decision analysis, the use of lattice models to represent and analyse uncertain situations, and dynamic programming as the basic analytic procedure. The second block develops the concepts of flexibility (otherwise known as 'real options'), simulation of performance for scenarios, screening models to identify desirable flexibility, and multidimensional economic evaluation. Students demonstrate proficiency through an extended application to a systems design of their choice.

 40.009: Project Management Students will learn about project management, including relevant theory, models and methods as well as applicable skills. The class entails a series of modules that complement and support project work within the pillar. In this way students will not just learn about project management but have the opportunity to practice it, as they conduct their project work. The class modules will include network models for conceptualising projects, planning and scheduling methods for project management, methods for addressing project dynamics due to task uncertainty and project risk, monitoring and rescheduling of projects, project accounting and organisational considerations in managing people and projects. The class will also introduce leadership, communication and teamwork skills, as relevant for successful projects.

 01.401: Capstone 2 Students finish work on a substantial two-term project that integrates and demonstrates the knowledge and skills they have acquired in the context of a real-world problem.

 40.010: System Dynamics This class provides an introduction to system dynamics modelling for the analysis of engineering and engineered systems. Students learn to visualise an engineering system in terms of the structures and policies that create dynamics and regulate performance. The subject uses role playing games, simulation models, and management flight simulators to develop principles for the successful design and control of complex systems. Special emphasis will be placed on case studies of successful strategies using system dynamics. The principle purpose of modelling is to improve our understanding of the ways in which a system's performance is related to its internal structure and operating policies as well as those of customers, competitors, and suppliers. During the subject you will use several simulation models to explore such strategic issues as fluctuating sales, production and earnings; market growth and stagnation; the diffusion of new technologies; the use and reliability of forecasts; and the rationality of business decision making.

Architecture and Sustainable Design (ASD) Subjects

 20.001: Architecture Core Studio 1 The studio establishes foundations for architectural design through four exercises that build in scope and complexity to have students engage issues of 3 dimensional geometry and drawing, space and component aggregation, ordering systems, structure, circulation and narrative, and tectonics. The design process is introduced as an iterative form of research, experimentation and play, enabling students to develop conceptual ideas about architecture and translate them into a series of physical and material investigations. Each exercise is envisioned as an introduction to design thinking through an increasingly more complex set of relationships with regard to formal procedures, program and systems. Students are required to work in both physical and digital models, and rehearse both analogue and digital drawing techniques for each exercise. The exercises will test both conceptual and analytical thinking as well as aid in the development of representational skills. The course is intended for entering architecture students and must be taken in sequence.

 20.002: Architecture Science & Technology The building technology sequence of classes begins with an introduction to the performance requirements, physics and physical phenomenon and construction systems of contemporary buildings. The intention of this class will be to link the diversity of physical forces relevant to building performance to the materials, components, assemblies and large-scale systems that control and direct these forces and guide performance. This introduction will be phased to deliver to the entering Architecture and Sustainable Design student key concepts and essential analytical skills necessary for the rigorous selection and design of all major building systems; 1) the superstructure, 2) enclosure, 3) environmental systems (including heating, cooling, ventilation, power and water), and 4) interior construction and circulation.

 20.003: Introduction to Rule Based CAD Modelling & Design This subject is aimed at students with little or no 3D modelling or programming experience. It aims to provide an understanding of the role computation can play in solving design problems. It also aims to help students, regardless of their major feel justifiably confident of their ability to write small programmes that allow them to accomplish useful design goals. In the end, this subject will provide a foundation in computing and design for more advanced subjects to come. Completion of this subject expects students to gain a mastery of basic skills in computer modelling, CAD scripting as it relates to building geometries and model manufacturing with machines.

 20.004: Theory & Culture 1 Provides an outline of the history of architecture and urbanism from Ancient Egypt to the present and spanning both western and eastern traditions. Analyses buildings and the built environment as the products of culture and in relation to the special problems of architectural design and the history of architecture with an urbanist perspective that stresses the cultural and political context from which building arises. Designed to develop critical tools used in the analysis and appreciation of architecture for its role in creating the intellectual environment in which we conduct our lives. Instruction and practice in oral and written communication provided.

 20.005: Architecture Core Studio 2 Core II integrates material tectonics with performance parameters through close collaboration with Computation faculty and coursework. Students build upon generative form making skills and statics learned in Core I and learn scripting protocols for 3-D modelling programmes. Students engage in parametric design of an enclosure component to define and apply energy related performance criteria for solar shading, day-lighting, and acoustics in their design proposals.

 20.006: Architectural Structure & Enclosure Design The frame and skin of a building are literally the foundation and protection of a building's interior and its occupants. These two systems fulfil the fundamental prerequisites for establishing a strong, reliable and durable structure that supports an enclosure that provides a stable and comfortable interior environment. These two assemblies are the most important and timeless constructed systems of architecture. This second technology class will focus on these two systems, independently and holistically. Each system will be investigated in detail beginning with the performance functions that govern the engineering, specification and design of all of its components.

 20.007: Design & Fabrication Parametric descriptions are built with a variety of intents from creative parametric design found in architecture, parametric modelling used by mechanical engineers and rule based systems found in AI. This subject will focus on aspects of all three. First, parametric design will be taught as part of architectural form making and design modelling. Design models will be generated and guided by visual constraints. Design modelling will also be taught through the lens of atmospheric constraints such as wind loading, day lighting, energy and rainfall with the idea of shaping designs to make best use of environmental factors. Second, this subject will explore parametric modelling for mechanical design of building of features such as motorised door, window shading, construction detailing and passive heating and cooling systems. Here students will design building components with families of features as ways to learn assemblies and modular methods of design construction. Lastly, students be given exercises in rule based parametric design applying C++ computer programming to control generative modelling of 3D detailed component. Designs will be evaluated and questioned as physical models manufactured from CAD/CAM based machines across many length scales. Models will be manufactured with rapid prototyping tools in the beginning of the term, later in the term students will learn assembles and rule based methods to manufacture components directly from CNC technologies.

 20.008: Theory & Culture 2 Studies the essential interrelationships of architectural theory, history, and practice. Examines theoretical investigations not as specialised discourse relating exclusively to architectural production, but as essential and deeply relevant to diverse human social and economic activities, whether they be cultural, aesthetic, philosophical, or professional. Topics and examples are chosen from a wide range of materials, from classical antiquity to contemporary practice. Special topics relating to 21st century urbanisation, emerging economies of China and India and ecological and environmental debates will be addressed.

 20.009: Architecture Design Core 3 This architectural design studio acts as a comprehensive design moment in which the student is asked to integrate across building systems and sub-disciplines – building technologies, theory and culture, and computation. Architectural design exercises address sustainability, structural and environmental responsiveness, awareness of digital fabrication and the integration of new media, and the interrogation of a total building system. Mediates between critical, theoretical and practical goals, bridging historical precedents and the evolution of new media and technologies. This studio completes the design sequence core and prepares the student for engaging in productive collaboration in the following two design studios; 01.400 and 01.401.

 20.010: Architectural Energy & Water Systems Energy and water pose the greatest challenges to a future sustainable built environment. Simultaneously local and global in nature, the availability and accessibility of reliable and clean energy as well as potable water pose threats that extend beyond the reach of designers and technologists. However, the built environment – and the individual buildings that comprise our ever-expending urban landscape – retain the potential to contribute significant efficiency savings to the overall mix of strategies necessary for a sustainable future. This class will address the energy and water needs of a variety of buildings and the systems that distribute these critical resources to their occupants.

 20.011: Building Information Design & Modelling Building Information Modelling (BIM) provides rich, machine-readable representations of proposed building designs. With BIM, it becomes practical to embed into computational tools the accumulated knowledge regarding good design and construction practices. This subject is designed to provide students with fundamental knowledge and basic practical skills of the planning and execution of Building Information Models. It is also aimed to offer opportunities for students to establish a basic understanding of those elements that impact the generation of a Building Information Model, including methods of communication, data creation, social, and economic factors between trades. Building models will be challenged with analysis software to test for structural loading, energy use and 4D modelling of building assembly. Learning occurs through design cases of building over 4 stories as a way to learn behaviours of all building systems. Students will also use programming skills to design database material that can be shared by future students.

 20.012: The Built Environment and Value This class presents the fundamentals of valuation in the built environment. Beginning with a detailed survey of the structure of real estate finance and the elements of markets in the built environment, the class examines the essence of value embodied in real estate. Fundamentals of macroeconomics will be employed to understand the behaviour of markets trading in the value of real estate as real properties as well as securitised assets. Particular attributes of real property such as limited liquidity, capital intensity of improvement and development and the generation of cash flow from real assets will be examined. Emerging trends in the derivation and generation of value in the built environment – especially as related to sustainable and green architecture - will be a special focus of the class.

 01.400: Capstone 1 Offers a range of theoretical and practical design initiatives based on the opportunities inherent in collaborative engagement with the disciplines of the other three SUTD pillars. Provides students the opportunity to advance their focus and concentration on research across various architectural disciplines while engaging in technology development as part of the design project. Themes range from urbanism to community-based design work, from material investigations to new technologies including computation, sensors, simulation of various kinds - and from complex programmatic organisations to emerging architectural predicaments. Offers the student the opportunity to explore collaborative engagement with other classes and students in other SUTD pillars.

 20.013: Integrated Building Systems The intent of this subject is a reconsideration of the design process through the introduction of the various notions and strategies of integration. The integration strategies that are most relevant in architectural practice are the directed integration and coordination of various systems of a building for the purpose of achieving a higher performance level as a whole than would be possible otherwise. To this end it is critical to establish clearly stipulated performance criteria for each system being considered. Those criteria must consider the forces (stressors) that exist as part of the site and the climate of the location, the performance goals that are important to the building, and the various ways in which the building, as an assembly of systems, may achieve those performance goals.

 20.014: Computation Elective Individual research or project teamwork with digital fabrication software and devices in the computational design process. Topics of investigation may include any one of many current and emerging issues in computational research related to the built environment.

 20.015: Alternative Practice- Emergent Design Technologies The class will examine emerging trends in the practice of architectural design and development. Expanding themes examined in 20.008 and 20.012 and leveraging the knowledge derived in the design studio sequence, the student will be challenged to critically assess the basis for contemporary practice and engage with emerging trends driven by new technologies in digital media, computational tools, information technologies, smart building systems and new business models for generating value of various kinds. The foundation for the class will be the legal, contractual and regulatory framework within which architects practice today but will extend to the emerging models for future architectural production.

 01.401: Capstone 2 The second Collaborative design studio provides an opportunity for students to directly engage research topics under the Sustainable Built Environment Grand Challenge of the International Design Centre. At least two streams will be available for students to engage in: 1) high performance, 'green' building design or 2) sustainable cities. Each stream requires that the student be incorporated into a collaborative relationship with research sponsored by the IDC or other organisation in Singapore (for example, the Building Construction Academy, the Livable Cities Centre, and others). Projects will be focused on current critical issues of the built environment with a special emphasis on technology-driven emerging business and design opportunities in the Asian context.

 20.016: Thesis Preparation Develop research topics, review relevant research and scholarship, frame research questions and arguments, choose an appropriate methodology for analysis, and draft introductory and methodology sections. The goal of the class is the comprehensive development of a research agenda that will be used in 20.501. Also, the research agenda is to be developed in partnership with researchers in the International Design Centre and other research entities in Singapore and beyond.

5th Year ASD Master's Subjects (Terms 9 and 10)

 20.500: Advanced Design & Research Studio This class completes the merging of architectural practice with the world of research. Each student will be challenged to employ the research agenda developed in 01.401 as a work plan for the term. Research groups will be formed around similar topic areas and these groups will engage with researchers in the International Design Centre. Research in all areas will be considered including architectural design, history and theory, technology development of all kinds, and business and leadership topics. The student will be asked to produce a research report formatted in the most appropriate manner for the topic of their choosing.

 20.501: Thesis Preparation 2 Using the research agenda developed in 20.016, this class will engage in research work toward the final thesis project. Of particular importance will be the integration of the research project with on-going research at the International Design Centre, including the recruitment of researchers to serve on the thesis committee of the student. This class will run simultaneously with one half of the year-long thesis class, 01.500. The class will offer the ASD student opportunities for engaging with researchers of the IDC or other local organisations engaged in important research of the built environment. Various intensities of partnership will be available to the student, from an indirect relation to on-going research in the IDC to direct and funded involvement in existing research groups.

 01.500: Thesis The thesis class is a two-term class in which the student will develop, finalise and communicate the capstone research project for completion of the requirements for a Master of Architecture degree. The content of the class will be entirely determined by the research agenda prepared by the student in consultation with the individual's academic advisor and the thesis committee. The overall scope, detailed work plan and schedule, deliverables and final product of the thesis will be determined by the collaboration between the student researcher, the advisor, the thesis committee and any independent researchers of the IDC and beyond.