Introduction to Optics: Color Generation and Measurement

Digital cameras today are modeled after the human eye. They capture color information based only on three color filters, i.e. red, green and blue (R,G,B). With increasing advances in imagers and sensors, more detailed color information in the form of multispectral detectors are being developed to address specific needs in various industries. As color perception is one of the most quantifiable of human senses, this course aims to provide a foundational understanding of colors and how colors are generated, measured and quantified.  

Course Details

Course Dates: 
Not available.

2 days, 9am - 5pm

Who Should Attend

  • Anyone interested to know more about color representation

Programme Outline

Learning Objectives
  • Understand terms used in describing colors
  • Differentiate different spectral bands of color
  • Understand color representations, e.g. CIE map
  • Correlate one representation of color to another, e.g. spectrum to CIE to RGB
Day 1
  • Basics of light, photons, and spectral characteristics
  • Human color perception 
  • Introduction to color imaging systems
  • Quantifying color with spectral measurements
  • Cleanroom tour (Practical)
  • Experiments to generate colors (Practical)
  • Summary
Day 2
  • Reliability and failure analysis of semiconductor devices and IC systems
  • Statistics and models related to reliability and failure analysis
  • Data modelling/analysis tools for reliability study
  • Hands-on session to analyse the impact of different variables
  • Written assessment 
  • Team Project

Course Fees and Funding

Full course fee inclusive of prevailing GST

You pay

SkillsFuture Course Fee subsidy (70%)

  • For Singapore Citizens < 40 years old 
  • For Permanent Residents

You pay

Mid-Career Enhanced Subsidy (90%)

  • For Singapore Citizens ≥ 40 years old

You pay

Enhanced Training Support for SMEs (90%)

  • For SME - Sponsored employees

You pay

The above module fee payable is inclusive of prevailing 9% GST. 



Joel Yang 
Associate Professor, Engineering Product Development (EPD), Singapore University of Technology and Design  

Joel received his PhD (2009) and Master of Science (2005) degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. He is an Associate Professor in the Engineering Product Development pillar at Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD) and holds a joint appointment as Principal Scientist I at the Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE) of A*STAR. He is recognized for pioneering work in plasmonic colour printing, achieving record-level printing resolution at 100,000 dpi and credited for the widely-used “salty-developer” to improve the resolution of electron beam lithography.
Joel’s research interests include Nanoplasmonics, 2D and 3D printed nano optical design elements (NODE), and sub-10-nm resolution lithography. He serves as Associate Editor of Science Advances, Associate Editor of Optics Express, and member of the Editorial Advisory Board of ACS Photonics. He is Fellow of OSA The Optical Society, NRF Investigator (class of 2020), and A*STAR Investigator (2010). His accolades include the IPS Nanotechnology Medal and Prize (Institute of Physics Singapore), MIT Technology Review TR35 award, and the Singapore Young Scientist Award.
Read more.

Policies and Financing Options

SSG Funding Terms and Conditions

Use of Personal Details

In consideration of the subsidy provided by SkillsFuture Singapore Agency (“SSG”) through the SUTD Academy for the Course,

I consent to:

The collection, use and disclosure to relevant third parties of my personal data by the SUTD Academy including but not limited to personal particulars, attendance records, assessment/performance records, for the following purposes:

  1. Reporting of national statistics and conducting of holistic continuing education training research and analysis;

  2. Facilitate the conduct of the relevant surveys and audits in relation to the Course;

  3. General administration of the Course including but not limited to processing of the subsidy provided by SSG;

  4. Publicity and marketing of the Course or other Courses to be provided by SSG or SUTD Academy; and

  5. SSG or its Appointed Auditors or Nominated Representatives to directly contact Course Participant to obtain information deemed necessary for the purposes of conducting effectiveness survey or audits in relation to the Course.

SUTD will have to claim the full course fee from participant who is unable to fulfil the SSG funding requirements stated below.

I agree to:

  1. Attend and complete all lectures, class exercises, workshops and assessments;

  2. Complete the Course feedback at the end of the Course;

  3. Complete the post Course survey sent about 3 to 6 months after class attendance; and

  4. Sign up for a personal email account.

SUTD Privacy Statement

For more information on SUTD's privacy statement, please visit

SUTD Terms and Conditions

Methods of Payment

Learn more about the available payment modes.

Cancellation & Refund Policy

  1. If a written notification is sent to within 24 hours after course registration deadline there will be no cancellation charges. A full refund will be made. 

  2. No refund is provided if written notification is more than 24 hours after course registration deadline. SUTD Academy reserves the rights to collect the full fee amount from the participant.

Replacement Policy

Companies may replace participants who have signed up for the course by giving a 3-working day notice before the course commencement date to Terms and conditions apply.

Registration Policy

  1. Course may be cancelled due to insufficient participants. SUTD Academy will not be responsible or liable in any way for any claims, damages, losses, expenses, costs or liabilities whatsoever (including, without limitation, any direct or indirect damages for loss of profits, business interruption or loss of information) resulting or arising directly or indirectly from any course cancellation.

  2. Course enrolment is based on a first-come, first-served basis.

  3. SUTD Academy reserves the right to change or cancel any course or instructor due to unforeseen circumstances. 

Types of Funding

Funding under Mid-Career Enhanced Subsidy ("MCES")

  1. MCES is an enhanced Subsidy to encourage mid-career individuals to upskill and reskill, thereby helping them to remain competitive and resilient in the job market. With this, all Singaporeans aged 40 and above will receive higher subsidies of up to 90% course fee subsidy for SSG-funded certifiable courses.

  2. Individuals/employers are not required to submit an application for the MCES. Those pursuing SSG-funded programmes will be charged the appropriate subsidised fees by SUTD Academy if they are eligible MCES. Individuals/employers will only need to pay the nett fee (full course fee after SSG's grant).

    For more info, please visit SkillsFuture website at

Funding under Enhanced Training Support for SMEs ("ETSS")

  1. ETSS is an enhanced funding to enable SMEs to send their employees for training.

  2. SMEs will enjoy subsidies of up to 90% of the course fees when they sponsor their employees for SSG-funded certifiable courses.

  3. In addition to higher course fee funding, SMEs can also claim absentee payroll funding of 80% of basic hourly salary at a higher cap of $7.50 per hour. SMEs may apply for the absentee payroll via the SkillsConnect system.

  4. To qualify, SMEs must meet all of the following criteria:
    - Organisation must be registered or incorporated in Singapore
    - Employment size of not more than 200 or with annual sales turnover of not more than $100 million
    - Trainees must be hired in accordance with the Employment Act and fully sponsored by their employers for the course
    - Trainees must be Singapore Citizens or Singapore Permanent Residents

    For more info, please visit SSG website at

Funding under Union Training Assistance Programme ("UTAP")

UTAP is a training benefit for NTUC members to defray their cost of training. This benefit is to encourage more union members to go for skills upgrading.

NTUC members enjoy 50% unfunded course fee support for up to $250 each year when you sign up for courses supported under UTAP (Union Training Assistance Programme).

For more info, please visit

Funding under Post-Secondary Education Account ("PSEA")

The Post-Secondary Education Account (PSEA) is part of the Post-Secondary Education Scheme to help pay for the post-secondary education of Singaporeans.

This is part of the Government’s efforts to encourage every Singaporean to complete their post-secondary education. It also underscores the Government’s commitment to support families in investing in the future education of their children and to prepare them for the economy of the future. PSEA is not a bank account.

It is administered by the Ministry of Education (MOE) and is opened automatically for all eligible Singaporeans.

Account holders can use their PSEA funds to pay for their own or their siblings’ approved fees and charges for approved programs conducted by approved institutions.

However, you will have to check your eligibility and balance by contacting MOE first.

Contact MOE at (65) 6260 0777

E-mail to MOE at

Click here for MOE website.